Computer and Communication Networks


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As soon as the spreadsheet was invented, however, businesses took notice, and the rest is history.

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The spreadsheet was the killer app for the personal computer: people bought PCs just so they could run spreadsheets. The Internet was originally designed as a way for scientists and researchers to share information and computing power among themselves. However, as soon as electronic mail was invented, it began driving demand for the Internet.

We are seeing this again today with social networks, specifically Facebook.

The connections made between people using Web 2. The Internet is an interconnected network of networks. Many services run across the Internet: electronic mail, voice and video, file transfers, and, yes, the World Wide Web.

The World Wide Web is simply one piece of the Internet. It is made up of web servers that have HTML pages that are being viewed on devices with web browsers. It is really that simple.


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In the early days of the Internet, most access was done via a modem over an analog telephone line. Speeds were measured in bits-per-second bps , with speeds growing from bps to 56, bps over the years. Connection to the Internet via these modems is called dial-up access.

Dial-up was very inconvenient because it tied up the phone line. As the web became more and more interactive, dial-up also hindered usage, as users wanted to transfer more and more data. As a point of reference, downloading a typical 3. A broadband connection is defined as one that has speeds of at least , bps, though most connections today are much faster, measured in millions of bits per second megabits or mbps or even billions gigabits. For the home user, a broadband connection is usually accomplished via the cable television lines or phone lines DSL. Both cable and DSL have similar prices and speeds, though each individual may find that one is better than the other for their specific area.

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Speeds for cable and DSL can vary during different times of the day or week, depending upon how much data traffic is being used. In more remote areas, where cable and phone companies do not provide access, home Internet connections can be made via satellite. The average home broadband speed is anywhere between 3 mbps and 30 mbps. At 10 mbps, downloading a typical 3.

For businesses who require more bandwidth and reliability, telecommunications companies can provide other options, such as T1 and T3 lines. Broadband access is important because it impacts how the Internet is used. When a community has access to broadband, it allows them to interact more online and increases the usage of digital tools overall.


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  • Access to broadband is now considered a basic human right by the United Nations, as declared in their statement :. We believe that communication is not just a human need — it is a right. Today we are used to being able to access the Internet wherever we go. These wireless technologies have made Internet access more convenient and have made devices such as tablets and laptops much more functional.

    Wi-Fi is a technology that takes an Internet signal and converts it into radio waves. Several Wi-Fi specifications have been developed over the years, starting with Each new specification improved the speed and range of Wi-Fi, allowing for more uses. One of the primary places where Wi-Fi is being used is in the home. Home users are purchasing Wi-Fi routers, connecting them to their broadband connections, and then connecting multiple devices via Wi-Fi. As the cellphone has evolved into the smartphone, the desire for Internet access on these devices has led to data networks being included as part of the mobile phone network.

    While Internet connections were technically available earlier, it was really with the release of the 3G networks in in the US that smartphones and other cellular devices could access data from the Internet. This new capability drove the market for new and more powerful smartphones, such as the iPhone, introduced in In , wireless carriers began offering 4G data speeds, giving the cellular networks the same speeds that customers were used to getting via their home connection.

    As mobile phone technologies have evolved, providers in different countries have chosen different communication standards for their mobile phone networks.

    Computer communications and networks

    Each standard has its pros and cons, but the bottom line is that phones using one standard cannot easily switch to the other. In the US, this is not a big deal because mobile networks exist to support both standards. But when you travel to other countries, you will find that most of them use GSM networks, with the one big exception being Japan, which has standardized on CDMA. It is possible for a mobile phone using one type of network to switch to the other type of network by switching out the SIM card, which controls your access to the mobile network.

    However, this will not work in all cases. If you are traveling abroad, it is always best to consult with your mobile provider to determine the best way to access a mobile network. While Bluetooth is not generally used to connect a device to the Internet, it is an important wireless technology that has enabled many functionalities that are used every day.

    When created in by Ericsson, it was intended to replace wired connections between devices. Today, it is the standard method for connecting nearby devices wirelessly.

    Bluetooth has a range of approximately feet and consumes very little power, making it an excellent choice for a variety of purposes. Some applications of Bluetooth include: connecting a printer to a personal computer, connecting a mobile phone and headset, connecting a wireless keyboard and mouse to a computer, and connecting a remote for a presentation made on a personal computer. A growing class of data being transferred over the Internet is voice data. A protocol called v oice over IP , or VoIP, enables sounds to be converted to a digital format for transmission over the Internet and then re-created at the other end.

    By using many existing technologies and software, voice communication over the Internet is now available to anyone with a browser think Skype, Google Hangouts. Beyond this, many companies are now offering VoIP-based telephone service for business and home use.

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    While the Internet was evolving and creating a way for organizations to connect to each other and the world, another revolution was taking place inside organizations. The proliferation of personal computers inside organizations led to the need to share resources such as printers, scanners, and data. Organizations solved this problem through the creation of local area networks LANs , which allowed computers to connect to each other and to peripherals. The purpose is to have a forum in which general doubts about the processes of publication in the journal, experiences and other issues derived from the publication of papers are resolved.

    For topics on particular articles, maintain the dialogue through the usual channels with your editor. Year SJR 0. Citations per document. Cites Year Value External Cites per document 0. Year International Collaboration 5. Show this widget in your own website. Computer Science Computer Networks and Communications.

    Elsevier BV. Study will combine lectures, seminars, workshop sessions, computer simulation, self-study, and individual and group project work. Your progress will be assessed via assignments, presentations, technical analytical reports, group reports, exams and your dissertation.

    CS402: Computer Communications and Networks

    Exit Menu. Start date September. Subject area Electronic and Computer Engineering. Mode of study 1 year full-time.

    525.641 - Computer and Data Communication Networks

    Entry requirements Back to top Overview. Year 1. Other qualifications and relevant experience will be assessed on an individual basis. IELTS: 6 min 5.

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