Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work)


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Sort order. Tiffany added it Dec 31, Ann Washington marked it as to-read Feb 02, Avanza Avanza marked it as to-read Jul 06, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Raymond Sanchez Mayers. Raymond Sanchez Mayers. Books by Raymond Sanchez Mayers. Trivia About Dilemmas In Human According to Lewis, Lewis, and Souflee , pp. Today's managerial leaders must also acquire knowledge and skills in dealing with the They continue: Knowledge of the environments in which human service organizations are embedded and of the skills required to negotiate balanced exchanges of tangible and intangible goods and services between the organization and its task environment becomes an essential component of the managerial leader's professional armamentarium.

The third assumption undergirding the Human Services Management Model—that only under ideal circumstances does one find both managerial and leadership qualities in the same person— implies the obvious: we live in a less than perfect world and our human service organizations most, at any rate are less than ideal. Yet, it is exactly the achievement of the ideal that drives organizations obsessed with providing the best possible services to their clients. Furthermore, to be magnificently obsessed by the absolute necessity of providing quality services to clients is but another attribute of a good leader.

The particular purpose of any human service agency is usually contained in its mission statement. In the case of public agencies, their mission is usually found in the piece of legislation that created them. The mission of the private nonprofit agency is determined by its dominant coalition, i. Mission statements are commonly stated in broad, general terms, such as: The purpose of this organization is to meet the economic needs of the indigent citizens of the county who are ineligible for state or federal assistance. This agency is established in order to provide counseling and education to individuals and families in matters pertaining to drug abuse.

The mission of this agency is to enhance the quality of life of the physically handicapped residents of this community. Any planning done by an organization should be inextricably connected to its mission, if that mission is to be fulfilled. Moreover, planning determines the form and content of the rest of the components of the management system, including the design of the structure of the organization, its staffing pattern, its finances, its delivery of services, and its program efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, considerable thought must be given to the specification of a program's goals and objectives.

Program goals and objectives, furthermore, should be based on a sound analysis of the needs in the community related to the agency's mission. Once related community needs are analyzed, it is the responsibility of the dominant coalition to establish long-term and short-term goals to meet those needs. Establishment of long-term goals is usually referred to as strategic planning. Intermediate goals designed to meet long-term goals come under the heading of tactical planning. Although not as general as the mission statement, goals are usually not specific enough to lend themselves to quantitative measurement.

Therefore, goals should be accompanied by behavioral objectives stated in measurable terms. Objectives can be of three Human Services Management in Perspective 7 kinds United Way Services, : organizational, activity, or outcome. Organizational objectives refer to the agency's intention to improve its operations; activity objectives refer to expected number of services or activities to be accomplished within a specific period of time; outcome objectives specify the impact of program intervention on client behavior.

Designing Organizational Structure Once program goals and objectives are specified, the structure of the program can be designed. Goals determine the number and types of functions the program will have. For example, a program can have three goals: 1. To provide crisis hotline services. To provide individual and family counseling. To provide family life education. These goals suggest three program functions. Whether or not to provide these services within one unit or to create three separate service components will depend on strategic choices made by the dominant coalition. The activity objectives corresponding to each of the goals will assist the dominant coalition in determining the service delivery structure of the program.

Activity objectives selected and approved by the Board of Directors help determine the number of volunteers, counselors, and education specialists required to efficiently and effectively meet each goal. Lewis, Lewis, and Souflee , pp. An organizational design is best depicted by a table of organization or an organizational chart implying relationships among organizational components.

An example of an organizational chart based on the goals mentioned above is given in Figure 1. The strategic apex in this example is what we have called the dominant coalition—the Board of Directors and the Executive Director. The middle line is what is often referred to as midmanagement. It is comprised of the program director and program coordinators. The operating core consists of the crisis hotline volunteers, the individual and family counselors, and the family life education specialists. These are the workers who apply the functional technologies of the organization to the organization's clients.

Theory and Practice

The support staff include the executive secretary and the clerical pool, with the accountant being the only member of the technostructure, i. Design and structure issues addressed by this component of the management model include differentiation and integration, centralization and decentralization, chain of command, and span of control.

In the above example, differentiation resulted in the creation of three functional components: crisis hotline, counseling, and edu- Human Services Management in Perspective 9 cation. Integration was achieved by placing these components under the oversight of a Program Director, or integrator. This is especially true in the presence of such factors as intereomponent task interdependencies, status inconsistencies, jurisdictional ambiguities, dependencies on common resources, and so forth Miles, The chain of command in a professional bureaucracy pertains to the line of authority descending from the top to bottom, from the formulation of policy to its implementation.

An issue that arises in human service agencies is how much autonomy to grant to the members of the operating core in the execution of their professional duties. In other words, how much centralization or decentralization of power should exist in a human service organization? This question speaks to the values of the dominant coalition and to the leadership styles of its managerial staff. Span of control refers to the number of supervisees that a manager can effectively and efficiently supervise. One commonly held "rule of thumb" is that a supervisor should not attempt to oversee more than six persons at any given time.

Today, however, most theoreticians discount this rule in favor of the examination of contingency factors, such as unit function, staff proficiency, environmental conditions, etc. Regardless of interpretation, span of control has significance, in part, for the shape of the organization which evolves through growth. Wide span yields a flat structure; short span results in a tall structure. Further, the span concept directs attention to the complexity of human and functional interrelationships in an organization Scott, , p.

Organizational structure is closely correlated to organizational effectiveness Mintzberg, Therefore, it is incumbent upon dominant coalitions of human service enterprises to design structures compatible with agency mission, goals, and objectives. Achieving technological rationality is measured by the extent to which selected technologies produce desired outcomes. The concept of technological, or technical, rationality originated with Thompson , who also identified three general technologies: the long-linked, the mediating, and the intensive.

The long-linked technology is the kind found in mass production assembly lines; the mediating involves using standardized ways to link people, such as telephone customers, together. Human service organizations are especially concerned with the third technology, although they often also employ mediating technologies. The third technology, the intensive, signifies that a variety of techniques is drawn upon in order to achieve a change in some specific object; but the selection, combination, and order of application are determined by feedback from the object itself.

When the object is human, this technology is regarded as "therapeutic". Thompson, , p.

The degree to which members of the human services "possess" the relevant technologies, coupled with the developmental state of the technologies, will determine, in large measure, the degree of service effectiveness enjoyed by human service organization Miringoff, Mediating technologies employed by agencies— that is, technologies such as information and referral, transportation, case management, and the like—are relatively routine and therefore highly developed and not difficult to possess. Intensive technologies, on the other hand, require extensive training in institutions of higher learning charged with the responsibility to develop the state of their respective technologies and to turn out graduates with a high degree of possession of the technologies taught.

Human service organizations expect, for example, that an applicant with a Master of Social Work degree will possess a certain level of standardized knowledge and skills, and that that level is higher than the level possessed by an applicant with a Bachelor of Social Work degree. The question before managers responsible for the staffing of the organization becomes one of whether a certain job requires a BSW or an MSW level of technological proficiency. Not only must direct service staff possess an appropriate level of relevant technology, they must also maintain and evolve knowledge and skills in order to keep pace with technological developments.

Service effectiveness therefore requires hat the organization provide structured staff development programs to its workforce in order to achieve and maintain a state-of-the-art service delivery capability. Human Services Management in Perspective 11 Additionally, managers of human service agencies must also address the issues of the relevancy of their intensive technologies to the diverse cultural needs of their client populations, and of the degree to which service providers and clients share a common language and world view.

Resource Procurement and Allocation This component of the management model has to do with the procurement of funds to support the structure and staffing pattern dictated by the agency's planning goals and objectives. Moreover, it has to do as well with the budgeting, or internal allocation, of those funds to support the program activities designed to meet organizational goals and objectives.

Included in this component are the various fund-raising strategies used by staffs and boards of directors to secure financial resources from the environment to maintain and develop program operations, One common strategy employed by private nonprofit organizations is to affiliate with the local United Way to ensure a regular and somewhat predictable source of continual funding. Before engaging in binding affiliative relationships with federations such as United Way, dominant coalitions have to consider and weigh the nonmonetary costs involved.

Although affiliated or member agencies maintain their legal autonomy, they may in many instances lose some of their decision-making and functional autonomy, since the trade-off for membership usually means conforming to fiscal and programmatic conditions attached to funding. This is not to say that other funding sources—e. It is to say, however, that dominant coalitions must consider the conditions in the light of the coalition's obligation to maintain organizational integrity.

Managers of human service organizations, especially the private nonprofit type, spend a considerable amount of time attending to the financial matters of the organization, including the writing of grants and contracts to attract operating and capital improvement funds. Developing the agency's annual budget is usually the responsibility of the executive director. However, this responsibility can be shared with other staff members. Ultimately, though, it is the dominant coalition's responsibility to approve the budget Mayers, Sound budget decisions are those which are connected to the achievement of program goals and objectives.

Therefore, it is incumbent upon the dominant coalition to make fiscal decisions within that context. Whereas funding sources used to approve allocations based on incremental budget presentations, this is now rarely the case. That is, agencies can no longer expect that only annual increments to existing budgets must be justified. In this age of zero-based budgeting, agencies must defend and justify their entire budget each funding cycle, and must plan for such contingencies as budget reduction, modest budget increases, or same-level funding a form of budget reduction, considering inflation.

Moreover, agencies with multiple functions or programs are increasingly expected to submit budget requests that clearly specify the amount of resources being allocated to each function or program Skidmore, ; Mayers, Two current issues pertaining to the financing of the human service organization have to do with insurance payments and marketing, both of which raise ethical questions. The first, insurance payments, concerns the ethics of terminating services upon the expiration of coverage rather than upon the achievement of treatment goals.

The second has to do with the requirement that clinicians generate a certain number of referrals from the community in order to retain their jobs. Resource procurement and allocation require both technical and sociopolitical knowledge and skills on the part of the dominant coalition, the managers, and the staff of the human service enterprise. Questions of ethics and equity must be resolved in order to avoid conflicts resulting from the management of the financial affairs of the organization. Coordination and Control The coordination and control of agency or program operations is a major managerial function consisting of several sub-elements, including the provision of leadership; the establishment of agency Human Services Management in Perspective 13 policies and procedures; devising ways of collecting, using, and disseminating information; managing intra-organizational conflict; and the establishment of relationships with the agency's task environment.

Coordination, according to Mintzberg is "the glue that holds organizations together" p. Control, on the other hand, refers to regulated flows of information and decision making e. Although an organization can have more than one "power center" Etzioni, , and leadership responsibilities can be assigned to various individuals at different levels of the organizational hierarchy, principal leadership functions for most human service organizations are usually officially lodged at the highest level of the organization, the Board of Directors and the Chief Executive Officer—that part of the organization that Chandler calls the "dominant coalition" and that Mintzberg refers to as the "strategic apex.

The Chief Executive Officer, while also heavily charged with environmental relations, such as fundraising, the development of interagency agreements, public relations, and similar external coordinating activities, is held primarily accountable for the establishment and implementation of internal coordinating and control mechanisms, including the management of intra-organizational conflict that results from coordination and control efforts.

Coordination and control are two sides of the same coin. Coordination of activities is less likely to occur in the absence of a strong power center. The authority vested in the dominant coalition either by laws or constitutions i. Without that control, coordination is an improbable goal. Yet, control should not necessarily connote centralized, authoritarian bureaucracy, although in the absence of democratic, participatory leadership, it can have exactly that result.

Nevertheless, participative and laissez-faire leadership are not synonymous. The latter can be as deleterious as the totalitarian style. Mintzberg , pp. In the formal planning process, for example, general "strategic" plans are established at the strategic apex; successively, these are elaborated into programs, capital and operating budgets, and operating plans.. In effect, in the regulated system the decisions made at the strategic apex set off ever-widening waves of implementational decisions as they flow down the hierarchy. Mintzberg continues: The upward control system exists as a "management information system," or MIS, that collects and codes data on performance, starting in the operating core.

As this information passes each level in the hierarchy, it is aggregated until, finally, it reaches the strategic apex as a broad summary of overall organizational performance, p. The executive director can now turn his or her attention to the hiring of the program director, who, in turn, will be responsible for the hiring of staff in accordance with predetermined decisions regarding the establishment and achievement of technological rationality.

It is at this point that the decisions made with regard to coordination and control mechanisms come into full play. One useful tool in implementing programs is the time line. This device specifies which task is to be accomplished by what time and by whom. The time line assists in keeping program operations on course.

Coordination and control mechanisms also include the collection, analysis, and use of data and information regarding service delivery, financial transactions, interagency agreements, policy and procedural decisions, staff performance, etc. Establishing the program's infrastructure—i. Once staff are on board, attention must be paid to their orientation to the program and to their specific responsibilities. Human Services Management in Perspective IS In most human service agencies, front line supervisors play a key role in program implementation, in assuring that organizational mission, goals, and objectives are met.

Supervisors are at the nexus between the two major technologies—administration and direct practice—of the organization. Where the two technologies meet, service goals are operationalized into service activities. It is the responsibility of the supervisor to articulate the two technologies in a manner which satisfies the requirements of each in the efficient and effective implementation of services.

According to Williams: Implementation in an organization can involve both a continuing effort over time to raise the capability of that organization ,. Exciting as it is to implement new programs, the challenges are formidable. As Hasenfeld , p. It requires a great deal of flexibility and no little tolerance for failure and for ambiguity. Open-mindedness and willingness to explore alternative routes are essential ingredients.

During the early stages of program development, lines of communication with staff and clients must be kept as open as possible. Feedback is essential if the program is to adjust to unexpected exigencies. Staff who work directly with the community can provide invaluable information on the operationalization of the technology and its problems, its failures, and its successes. Another important dimension of program implementation pertains to the external relationships that the organization forms with key stakeholders in its task environment. Primary among these are the program's client population.

Without clients, there is no program. Therefore, efforts must be made to inform the populace about the services of the agency and to enlist the help of established agencies in referring clients. The formulation of clear and easily understood eligibility requirements is essential from the start. An agency that turns away many ineligible clients causes a serious and unnecessary hardship to those clients and to its staff as well. It also does harm to its own image, often damaging its relationships to other agencies. Thus it is critical for the new program to disseminate accurate and specific information about eligibility, both to the public and to other social agencies Hasenfeld, , p.

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In addition to establishing agreements with other agencies for the purpose of their referring clients to the organization, it is necessary as well to develop means by which the organization's clients can be referred for supplementary services to other community agencies. This sort of reciprocity between the organization and the human services community is essential in fostering organizational visibility and credibility.

Program Evaluation The final component of the human services management model is program evaluation. Program evaluation has its origins in strategic and tactical planning, at the point where program goals and objectives are specified. In fact, program evaluation designs are structured around the types of objectives contained in program goals. For example, activities objectives dictate the use of efficiency evaluation measurements, whereas outcome objectives call for effectiveness evaluation designs. Thus, evaluation findings serve to inform the agency's dominant coalition of whether or not program goals and objectives are being or have been met efficiently and effectively.

Based on findings, the dominant coalition is informed to make decisions around several issues pertaining to program operations: Information about current activities can help decision makers deal with immediate issues concerning resource allocations, staffing patterns, and provision of services to individual clients or target populations. At the same time, data concerning the outcomes of services can lead the way toward more rational decisions about continuation or expansion of effective programs and contraction or elimination of less effective services.


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Decisions concerning the development of new programs or the selection of alternate forms of service can also be made, not necessarily on the basis of evaluation alone but with evaluative data making a significant contribution. The latter demand the use of one or more evaluation designs ranging from highly sophisticated to rather primitive means of determining the effects of intervention on human behavior. Whichever design is used turns on the agency's consideration of the ethical, practical, and economic issues peculiar to each design.

The more sophisticated approaches to program evaluation attempt to establish a cause-effect relationship between intervention and behavior. The least sophisticated approaches tap clients' level of satisfaction with services rendered. In between, there are designs that measure individuals' behavioral changes during service delivery, and those that measure changes in attitudes and feelings.

Although these approaches make no claims about cause-effect relationships, they can produce qualified correlations between treatment and outcomes. In selecting the evaluation designs to measure program outcomes, the dominant coalition and its funding source need to consider the practical, affordable, and ethical ramifications of each approach. Program evaluation can occur during and after the implementation of a program. Evaluations which take place during program operations are called formative, process, or effort evaluations. Those performed at the end of a specific period of program operations are called summative Weiss, Human services managers concerned with the provision of quality services need to consider incorporating both formative and summative evaluation procedures into their program implementation plans.

Finally, both the funding source and the focal organization have to realize that program evaluation, although touted as a rational process, is fraught with political implications—evaluation is a rational enterprise that takes place in a political context. Political considerations intrude in three major ways, and the evaluator who fails to recognize their presence is in for a series of shocks and frustrations. First, the policies and programs with which evaluations deal are the creatures of political decisions.

They were proposed, defined, debated, enacted, and funded through political processes; and in implementation they remain subject to pressures, both supportive and hostile, which arise out of the play of politics. Second, because evaluation is undertaken in order to feed into decision making, its reports enter the political arena.

Third, and perhaps least recognized, evaluation itself is a political stance. By its very nature, it makes implicit political statements about such issues as the problematic nature of some programs and the unassaiiableness of others, the legitimacy of program goals, the legitimacy of program strategies, the utility of strategies of incremental reform, and even the appropriate role of the social scientist in policy and program formation Weiss, , pp.

Conclusion Program evaluation completes the cycle of the human services management model, which, as a systemic and dynamic process, lends itself to iterative and heuristic opportunities for the improvement of program operations. But, as Hasenfeld has observed, the initial steps are critical in the quest for program efficiency and effectiveness. Through repetition and self-discovery, managers of human service organizations can detect the pitfalls and learn the ropes of operating successful programs based on optimal decisions regarding each of the elements of the model.

Case illustrations in this text bring into bas-relief the everyday but critical dynamics of organizational behavior as they pertain to the components of the management model. These cases serve to depict the humor, the pathos, the rational, the irrational, the mundane, and the other myriad dimensions of life in the human service organization. References Abels, P. Barnard, C. The functions of the executive. Chandler, A, Etzioni, A.

Evans, M. Kerr Ed. Columbus, Ohio: Grid Publishing. Program development. Cox, J. Erlich, J. Tropman Eds. Lawrence, P. Organization and behavior. Lewis, J. Management of human service programs. Mayers, R. Miles, R. Macro organizational behavior. Mintzberg, H. The structuring of organizations. Miringoff, M. Management in human service organizations.

New York: Macmillan. Patti, R. Social welfare administration: Managing social programs in a developmental context. Perlmutter, F. Leadership in social administration: Perspectives for the 's. Scott, W. Organizational theory: An overview and an appraisal. Shafritz and P. Whitbeck Eds. Oak Park, IL: Moore.

Selznick, P. Leadership in administration: A sociological interpretation. Skidmore, R. Social work: The acquiescing profession. Social Work, 22 5 , Thompson, J. Organizations in action. New York: McGraw-Hill. Torrey, E. The mind game: Witchdoctors and psychiatrists. New York: Bantam Books. United Way Services Program planning and performance measurement system. Cleveland, Ohio: United Way Services.

Weiss, C. Evaluation research: Methods of assessing program effectiveness. Evaluation research in the political context. Guttentag Eds. Wright, R. The case method approach to education and training dates back to the Socratic technique of teaching people to think as opposed to just memorizing facts and theories Kelly, This approach has many advantages over traditional classroom lecturing as it uses a systematic system for developing and enhancing analytical and problem-solving skills.

This is an active, as opposed to a passive, approach to learning. In fact, the case method stimulates learning more than lecture teaching Bocker, Two types of cases used in the case method are the demonstration case and the problem case Bocker, The demonstration case shows effective management style or decision making by demonstrating how a manager or supervisor acted in a given situation. It should be open and flexible enough to lead the student through certain analytic processes including; the factual issues, the normative issues, the available alternatives and an appropriate defendable decision Gini, While some have criticized the case method approach as being too rigid and repressing creative thinking Argyris, , our experience has been the opposite.

Students can learn important lessons by analyzing cases and discussing them with classmates. One principle they learn is that there are not always correct answers to difficult management problems, just alternative ways of dealing with them. Discussions in the classroom often turn into brainstorming sessions which generate previously unthought of solutions. The second principle they learn is that any decision they make, while often based on unstated assumptions, should lend itself to articulation in a rationale manner with logic and data.

The guidelines help the student walk through the decision-making process, forcing them to look at factors and alternatives and develop logical rationales for their decisions. Each case provides an overview of the setting in which the action occurs, a profile of the key actors involved, and other information needed by the student to make decisions and demonstrate mastery of a given concept.

At the end of each case, the assumption is that the student is the administrator who must make critical decisions regarding the issues involved. The student can use the guidelines given here as the basis for a paper, presentation, or discussion. The framework presented here is a suggested approch that we have found very useful with our administration and planning students. However, it is only a suggestion for instructors.

The Case Method 23 Table 2,1 Guidelines for Analyzing a Management Case In reading these management cases for analysis and discussion, please review the following areas: 1. Facts of the Case: What events transpired that have a bearing on this case? Who are the principal actors involved? Issues; What are the broad issues involved in this case? How do opposing sides view the issues, e. What are problems in value arena and professional ethical standards? Alternative Actions: What alternative actions could be taken in this case? Please list all the possibilities that you can think of.

Do not rule out any at this point. You should be able to list many more than simple extremes. What are the possible scenarios that may be addressed in this problematic situation on the continuum from disasterious approach to a reasonable competent approach to the most ideal or ethical professional approach?

Recommendations: Out of all the alternative actions you listed, choose at least one to recommend. What action s have you chosen and why? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the action s you have chosen? How do they outweigh the other alternatives that you had to chose from?


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How feasible are your recommendations and what political considerations must be taken into account to make them work? What assumptions did you use in coming to your decision on these recommendations? Self-Awareness of Principles for Management Practice: What have you learned from this case that can benefit you as a manager?

What experiences have you had that come to mind when reading this case, and what have you learned from those experiences that helps you here? Human service managers are responsible to governing boards or to their supervisors, to funding sources, and to regulatory bodies that desire and demand logical, rational, well thought out reasons for a course of action. All good managers use intuitive, "gut" feelings of course, but such insights come from cues triggered by experience.

The student or manager should be able to utilize these nonverbal cues in the development of a strategic, well reasoned approach. This is the basis for the framework presented. We can never gather enough information or be able to fully evaluate the data we receive. But managers must: a be cognizant of the fundamental principles underlying significant decisions reached; and b be capable of articulating them convincingly to significant others within and without the organization.

We trust that the use of these cases will help build such capacity among students while offering them a glimpse of those varied dilemmas encountered daily by practitioners in the field. References Andrews, E, S.

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Some limitations of the case method: Experiences in a management development program. Academy of Management Review, 5 2 , Bocker, F. Is case teaching more effective than lecture teaching in business administration? An exploratory analysis. Interfaces, 17 5 , Gini, A. Journal of Business Ethics, 4 4 , Kelly, H. Case method training: What it is, how it works. Training; 20 2 , Spizizen, G. Active learning and the case method: Theory and practice. The Area units do not disburse payments against any expenses incurred, and are dependent on the Central office for a monthly accounting of expenditures by the Area unit.

The problem is that Central is so slow it takes them months to send the expense sheets to the units. It would be easy for a unit to incur a deficit without someone to keep a daily record of the invoices, vouchers, and purchase orders that are processed and sent to Central. Bonnie McCarthy had been a secretary who was asked to keep track of expenditures by the Area unit. She did the best she could, but she really had no knowledge of bookkeeping or accounting.

She devised a simple ledger system to keep track of the books, but she was constantly behind in her entries. So she was transferred back to secretarial duties, and the position of accounting clerk was created to attract a more qualified person.


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As the Department of Social Services is a unit of state government, there are civil service regulations as well as union rules about hiring. One of the rules is that vacant positions have to be advertised internally before someone from outside can be sought. In addition, employees of the department have preference for a job over an outsider.

It was difficult to know when and if this is being done in any particular case. Maggie Carter was hired as an accounting clerk for the Area unit run by Roland Sipes. She had transferred in from the central accounting department at headquarters where she worked for a number of years. The Area Director was very happy to get someone he thought was so qualified. He had been told that she was quite familiar with the procedures for processing purchase orders and vouchers, as well as taking care of grants monies.

She was to be supervised by the clerical supervisor of the department, Yolanda Green. Yolanda Green supervised all the nonprofessional staff of the office and had done so for a number of years. Previously he had been the Executive Director of a small nonprofit agency. Roland and Yolanda worked well together, she functioned as his assistant and oversaw the day-to-day operations of the office.

One of Roland's and Yolanda's problems, however, was that he thought he could run the Area office the way he had run his nonprofit agency. She took it upon herself to constantly run interference for him and smooth things over with other departments. He seemed to not understand, nor care about, civil service or union procedures and contracts. This led to the predicament that involved Maggie Carter. Maggie Carter had received glowing references from her former supervisors, she assured Yolanda that she understood the Department procedures for processing all the financial forms and paperwork.

Soon after she started her new job in the unit, however, it became apparent to Yolanda Green that Maggie could not do the job. Yolanda decided to give Maggie time to adjust. She also sent her to numerous in-service trainings provided by the Department for staff involved in the accounting procedures.

Nevertheless, Yolanda had to help Maggie perform some of the functions of her job, because she always seemed so swamped in trying to do her bookkeeping and forms processing. This caused Yolanda to fall behind on her own work. She mentioned to the Director that Maggie was slow in learning the job, but nothing was ever said to Maggie herself. Yolanda gradually learned that Maggie had a number of personal problems that interfered with her ability to concentrate on her job. Because civil service employees could accumulate unused sick leave indefinitely, Maggie began taking sick days off to attend to her family problems.

Maggie got further and further behind at work. It now took weeks for a simple purchase order to be processed. Yolanda became more angry and frustrated at Maggie's inability to do her job and at having to do some of it herself. After months of this, Yolanda called Maggie in and gave her a verbal warning regarding her performance.

She also suggested specific ways that she could improve her work habits.

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Maggie's primary responsibility was to be able to tell the Director how much money remained in the Area budget at a moment's notice. She was also supposed to be able to tell him how much had been spent in any budget category. Because she was so far behind in her work, she was unable to do this. This meant that his unit had a deficit and would have to charge expenses for the rest of the fiscal year to the following year's budget.

The Director became enraged and announced at the next day's professional staff meeting that he was going to fire Maggie. He told the group that she was incompetent and responsible for the deficit. Meanwhile, Yolanda gave Maggie a written warning regarding her performance, detailing a number of areas that had been less than satisfactory. Maggie angrily wrote a response denying all the allegations.

In her response, Maggie pointed out that she had worked at that particular unit of the Agency for almost a year and had never received any feedback, positive or negative, about her work. She asked if her work had been so bad, why had no one said anything to her before? That same week, on a day that Yolanda was out of the office, Roland Sipes called Maggie into his office. Maggie assumed he wanted to talk with her regarding her performance; she had heard from some of the social workers about his comments in the staff meeting.

When she walked into his office, Roland started yelling at Maggie, accusing her of incompetence. She tried to explain to him her version of what had happened, but he wouldn't listen. He told her he didn't want to hear anything she had to say, all he wanted was her resignation. She told him she was trying to transfer to another branch, but he exclaimed that she was so incompetent no other branch wanted her.

He yelled that he was going to document everything she did until he had enough to fire her. All the clerical pool staff in the outer office could hear the yelling emanating from behind Roland's door and became very angry at Roland for his treatment of Maggie. Shaken and crying, Maggie left Roland's office and called the union. Upon her return, Yolanda was contacted by the union person representing Maggie. Maggie had filed a grievance against the Department.

Since Yolanda was her supervisor, she had to respond in Step One of the grievance process. When she was informed of what had transpired between Roland and Maggie, Yolanda realized there was no way that Maggie could now be fired. She also knew that she could not let the grievance go to Step Two, which would involve Roland, As his assistant, she had acquired more status and control over agency operations.

She knew that he did not have the selfdiscipline to deal calmly with confrontations. If Roland yelled at Maggie or said derogatory things about her in front of the union rep, it would make the agency's case worse no matter what Maggie's performance level was. Roland had violated strict union and civil service procedures for disciplining and terminating an employee see Appendix I for a brief synopsis of the procedures.

Questions 1. Has Maggie properly utilized remedies available to state employees under established personnel policies and the union contract? What would you do now if you were Yolanda? What should Roland do now? What should he have done before? The method devised must be uniform for all employees, and must be communicated to all employees.

Employees must receive a copy of their performance evaluations and a copy must be placed in their personnel files. Section VI; Termination Procedures Employees whose performance is below standard must be given an opportunity to improve said performance. Employees must be given notice in writing as to those areas of substandard work, a time frame as to when improvement is expected, and consequences of unchanged productivity.

During this period, employee will also be notified as to when and how often reviews of work will take place. Article 8: Grievance Procedures 1. Any grievance by an employee shall be handled in the following manner: Step 1; The grievance shall be presented within ten 10 working days after the occurrence of the event.

The grievance shall be presented in writing citing the alleged violation. The grievance shall normally be presented to the employee's immediate supervisor. If the employee so requests, the steward may be present at any meeting that takes place. Step 2: If the grievance is not resolved at Step 1, the employee or the Union may within five 5 working days forward the grievance to the second level of authority. The same applies to the third level.

Such hearing shall take place not later than five 5 working days after receipt of the written request. The employee shall be entitled to be present. Step 4; If the Union is not satisfied with the decision of the Third Step Hearing Officer, the Union may within ten 10 working days after the receipt of the written decision submit the grievance to binding arbitration.

The Agency and the Union agree that the arbitrator to be chosen jointly shall be selected from a panel or panels to be provided by the American Arbitration Association. When an employee's record is free from any disciplinary action for a period of one year, any letters of reprimand or documents which express dissatisfaction with the employee's work performance or conduct in the employee's record shall be removed.

Winterman, She had already been interviewed by the Deputy Commissioner, Mr. Morton, several months before, and had not expected to hear from the department again. She was still interested in the position, however, so she agreed to fly to the state capital to be interviewed by Mr. Winterman, Before leaving, she told her boss at the City Planning Department that she might just possibly be offered the job by the state.

Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work)

Barbara had learned of the opening for the position of policy analyst from a friend who worked as legislative liaison in the Governor's Office. In fact, the position had been created at the request of the Governor, who strongly felt that each state department should critically analyze its policies on a continuous basis to determine if they were having their intended effect. The request, her friend informed her, had only reluctantly been honored by Commissioner Winterman, who felt that his department's policies were beyond reproach.

The position, as Barbara understood it from the job announcement mailed to her by her friend, called for someone with a Master's degree in either public administration or social work, with at least five years' experience in program planning and policy analysis. The policy analyst served IB a consultant capacity to the department's regional administrators in the implementation of departmental policies at the regional and local levels. As someone with an MSW with a concentration in planning and policy analysis, and seven years experience as a city planner, Barbara felt qualified for the position.

She looked forward with confidence to her interview with Commissioner Winterman. Barbara's interview with the Commissioner lasted all of fiftee minutes, during which time Mr. Winterman spent most of it citing "war stories" about his role in developing the department from a "horse and buggy" operation into one of the state's largest agencies. He really didn't see a need for a policy analyst, but since the Governor had insisted that he create the position, he had. Now he was offering the position to Barbara. Perhaps as someone new to the department, she would be able to identify policy flaws no one else had detected.

Feeling challenged by his remarks, Barbara accepted the position, whereupon the Commissioner took her to his Executive Secretary to fill out the necessary personnel forms. The secretary instructed Barbara to report to Deputy Commissioner Morton on the first working day of the following month, at 9 A. Barbara arrived at her new job early. She went to Deputy Commissioner Morton's office suite and introduced herself to Marlene, his secretary, who asked her to have a seat until Mr. Morton came in. At , Marlene informed Barbara that "Mr.

Barbara was shown to a small partitioned office space with a desk, a swivel chair, a telephone, and a side chair. To her dismay, she discovered that Dee was located in the secretarial pool on the floor above, where Barbara went to introduce herself. Dee quickly informed Barbara that she had been with the department for 20 years and had once been the Commissioner's secretary, but that "office politics" and his jealous wife had resulted in her assignment to the secretarial pool, where she had spent the last 12 years being assigned to "break in" new hires such as Barbara.

Barbara was not to worry about a thing. Dee would get her a set of office supplies and copies of the agency's policies and have them on her desk first thing in the morning. Barbara wondered if she could have the policy manuals at once so she could start orienting herself to the agency. Dee said she would try to do that. Maybe he could see her then. Barbara spent the remainder of her first day as policy analyst introducing herself to the few people who were at their desks in her work area. Most were cordial but uncommunicative.

Only one, Leo, a lawyer assigned to track federal legislation affecting the department, showed any interest in Barbara or her job. The secretary who answered Dee's phone said Dee had taken the afternoon off to look after a sick friend. Two weeks after reporting for work, Barbara got her office supplies, a stack of folders containing policy memos, and an appointment with her supervisor, Mr.

He congratulated Barbara on getting the position, said he looked forward to working with her, and informed her that she was scheduled to attend, together with other new state employees, a 2-week training session on Management by Objectives to be held in the Department of Agriculture.

This workshop was designed to help new state managers teach their supervisees the MBO system of articulating personal and unit objectives with agency goals and mission. When Barbara reminded Mr. The rest of the meeting with Mr. It was not until she got home that evening that Barbara was able to sort out the double-talk, the evasiveness, the glossing over of Mr. Number one, she had no authority whatsoever. Her department-level policy recommendations were to be submitted to Mr.

The Executive Committee would then send its review of her recommendations to Commissioner Winterman, who would ultimately decide which parts of the report to present to the Board of the Department of Human Resources for action. As far as regional policies were concerned, Barbara was to serve as a consultant to Regional Administrators. Moreover, under no circumstances was she to engage in the examination of local policy implementation without the written authority of Regional Administrators and the request of local program directors. During the next 4 months, Barbara gathered all of the policy memos in effect and organized them into a policy manual.

She prepared a separate document containing her analysis of each policy in terms of its short- and long-term consequences on both the department and its clients. Because of Dee's frequent absences from the office on sick-leave or emergency-leave, it took her a full month to type and correct the two documents, which Barbara finally presented to Deputy Commissioner Morton, who promised he would "get to them at the earliest opportunity.

Since she had met the Regional Administrators at a state office meeting, she felt comfortable in calling them for individual conferences in their regional offices to offer her services. Only three of the RAs were able to squeeze her into their busy schedules. Of those three, two canceled their appointments at the last minute. The one RA she met with seriously doubted that his region needed Barbara's help. Toward the end of her first year with the Department of Human Resources, Barbara's policy manual and analysis report are still being reviewed by Mr.

Barbara's resignation is to the point: "I quit! Morton wishes her success in her future endeavors. As is the case with most agency planners, Barbara was hired in a staff position outside the line of authority. What strategies could Barbara have used in her position to have her plans considered for implementation? Discuss the pros and cons of the strategy employed by the Governor. Should Barbara have quit or should she have taken other steps to address the department's organizational inertia?

As a counselor, he had always kept informed of new treatment techniques. Last year, he was promoted to his current position of Director of Counseling. He is a popular manager, because he devotes considerable energy to making his department run well. During his masters level education, Bernie used a personal computer for word processing, tax preparation, and other home chores. He always read computer magazines and enjoyed keeping up with technology developments. Bernie knew that computers could help with agency paperwork and record keeping.

When a friend offered Bernie a used computer for the agency, Bernie decided to computerize the client record-keeping system of one of his programs, a federally-funded drug treatment center. He wanted to illustrate the potential of a computerized information system to help manage program records.

To avoid the resentment of other employees, Bernie did not let the process of computerizing the drug treatment records interfere with his normal work. Programming was mostly done at home, after hours, and on weekends. He had help from a student intern who used the information system as a class project. The executive director seemed excited about Bernie's efforts and often mentioned his computerization project as something innovative that management was doing to help workers.

Within a year, Bernie had successfully computerized the client records of the drug treatment program. Clerical staff of the drug treatment program entered the data into the computer and reports were automatically produced daily, weekly, and monthly. Everyone liked the timeliness of the reports.

The counselors especially liked the capability of having clerical staff produce special reports. A typical request was to list the treatment modality and outcome of all clients who scored similar to their client on an addictions test battery. This information was very helpful in developing realistic treatment goals. Bernie wanted to apply computer power to the record-keeping system of the general counseling program.

Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work) Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work)
Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work) Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work)
Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work) Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work)
Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work) Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work)
Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work) Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work)
Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work) Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work)
Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work) Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work)
Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work) Dilemmas in Human Services Management: Illustrative Case Studies (Springer Series on Social Work)

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