Contact our Support Team. Request Case Start Chat. Translation Feedback How can we make this translation better? Get notified about latest updates to this technical article? Yes No. Do you want to Unsubscribe? Questions or issues with the site? Send Feedback. Please rate your online support experience with Esri's Support website. Below Satisified. Above Satisfied. The following statements take offline and bring online temporary files:. Undo Tablespace instead of Rollback Segments. Historically, Oracle has used rollback segments to store undo.
Space management for these rollback segments has proven to be quite complex. Oracle now offers another method of storing undo that eliminates the complexities of managing rollback segment space, and enables DBAs to exert control over how long undo is retained before being overwritten. This method uses an undo tablespace. You cannot use both methods in the same database instance, although for migration purposes it is possible, for example, to create undo tablespaces in a database that is using rollback segments, or to drop rollback segments in a database that is using undo tablespaces.
However, you must shutdown and restart your database in order to effect the switch to another method of managing undo. Create a Database with an Undo Tablespace. Several Undo Segments are automatically allocated. Obsolete INIT. ORA parameters when using an Undo Tablespace. New INIT. Default is seconds. This is a dynamic parameter. Prior to Oracle8i , all tablespaces were created as dictionary-managed. Dictionary-managed tablespaces rely on SQL dictionary tables to track space utilization.
Beginning with Oracle8i, you can create locally managed tablespaces , which use bitmaps instead of SQL dictionary tables to track used and free space. Your choices are:. Specifying this keyword tells Oracle that you want to use free lists for managing free space within segments. Free lists are lists of data blocks that have space available for inserting rows. This keyword tells Oracle that you want to use bitmaps to manage the free space within segments. A bitmap, in this case, is a map that describes the status of each data block within a segment with respect to the amount of space in the block available for inserting rows.
As more or less space becomes available in a data block, its new state is reflected in the bitmap. Bitmaps allow Oracle to manage free space more automatically, and thus, this form of space management is called automatic segment-space management. Free lists have been the traditional method of managing free space within segments. Bitmaps, however, provide a simpler and more efficient way of managing segment space.
If such attributes should be specified, they are ignored. The following statement creates tablespace users with automatic segment-space management:. It is not possible to create a temporary tablespace with automatic space management:. Your specification at tablespace creation time of your method for managing available space in segments, applies to all segments subsequently created in the tablespace.
Also, your choice of method cannot be subsequently altered. Only permanent, locally managed tablespaces can specify automatic segment-space management. For LOBs, you cannot specify automatic segment-space management. In highly available systems, it is occasionally necessary to redefine large "hot" tables to improve the performance of queries or DML performed against these tables. Oracle provide a mechanism to redefine tables online. This mechanism provides a significant increase in availability compared to traditional methods of redefining tables that require tables to be taken offline.
When a table is redefined online, it is accessible to DML during much of the redefinition process. The table is locked in the exclusive mode only during a very small window which is independent of the size of the table and the complexity of the redefinition. Online table redefinition enables you to:. Modify the storage parameters of the table. Move the table to a different tablespace in the same schema. Add support for parallel queries. Add or drop partitioning support. Re-create the table to reduce fragmentation.
Example of Online Table Redefinition. The column sal is renamed to salary and multiplied by a factor of 1. Steps for Online Redefinition of Tables. In order to perform an online redefinition of a table the user must perform the following steps. Verify that the table can be online redefined If the table is not a candidate for online redefinition, then this procedure raises an error indicating why the table cannot be online redefined. Create an empty interim table Start the redefinition process If the column mapping information is not supplied, then it is assumed that all the columns with their names unchanged are to be included in the interim table.
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If the column mapping is supplied, then only those columns specified explicitly in the column mapping are considered. Create any triggers, indexes, Any referential constraints involving the interim table that is, the interim table is either a parent or a child table of the referential constraint must be created disabled. Until the redefinition process is either completed or aborted, any trigger defined on the interim table will not execute.
When the redefinition is completed, the triggers, constraints, indexes and grants associated with the interim table replace those on the table being redefined. The referential constraints involving the interim table created disabled transfer to the table being redefined and become enabled after the redefinition is complete. If you know this is the case, it is recommended that you periodically synchronize the interim table with the original table. Finish the redefinition by During this procedure, the original table is locked in the exclusive mode for a very small window.
This window is independent of the amount of data in the original table. Also, as part of this procedure, the following occurs:. The original table is redefined such that it has all the attributes, indexes, constraints, grants and triggers of the interim table. The referential constraints involving the interim table now involve the post redefined table and are enabled.
The following is the end result of the redefinition process:. The original table is redefined with the attributes and features of the interim table. Any referential constraints involving the interim table before the redefinition process was finished now involve the post-redefinition table and are enabled. Any indexes, triggers, grants and constraints defined on the original table prior to redefinition are transferred to the interim table and are dropped when the user drops the interim table. Any referential constraints involving the original table before the redefinition now involve the interim table and are disabled.
They are automatically revalidated this revalidation can fail if the shape of the table was changed as a result of the redefinition process whenever they are used next. The following restrictions apply to the online redefinition of tables:. Tables must have primary keys to be candidates for online redefinition. The table to be redefined and the final redefined table must have the same primary key column.
Tables that have materialized views and materialized view logs defined on them cannot be online redefined. Tables that are materialized view container tables and Advanced Queuing tables cannot be online redefined. The overflow table of an index-organized table cannot be online redefined. Tables with user-defined types objects, REFs, collections, typed tables cannot be online redefined.
Tables with FILE columns cannot be online redefined. Tables with LONG columns cannot be online redefined. Tables with LOB columns are acceptable. The table to be redefined cannot be part of a cluster. There is no horizontal subsetting support. Only simple deterministic expressions can be used when mapping the columns in the interim table to those of the original table.
For example, subqueries are not allowed. If new columns which are not instantiated with existing data for the original table are being added as part of the redefinition, then they must not be declared NOT NULL until the redefinition is complete. There cannot be any referential constraints between the table being redefined and the interim table. You can specify that you want to perform structure validation online while DML is occurring against the object being validated. The following statement validates the emp table and all associated indexes online:. Suspending and Resuming a Database. The suspend command suspends the database, and is not specific to an instance.
Therefore, in an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment, if the suspend command is entered on one system, then internal locking mechanisms will propagate the halt request across instances, thereby quiescing all active instances in a given cluster. However, do not start a new instance while you suspend another instance, since the new instance will not be suspended.
The national character set is specified when you create an Oracle database:. New SQL join support in Oracle9i. In the following example this older standard join syntax is shown:. Before Oracle9i, Oracle databases supported outer joins through the use of a proprietary syntax:. T he traditional join syntax has its problems. Given a complex query, it can often be difficult to parse the WHERE clause to separate the join conditions from other restrictions placed on the query results. And programmers occasionally overlook specifying any join conditions at all, leading to a Cartesian product.
Using the traditional approach, you begin by listing the two tables in the FROM clause of your query, as follows:. Using the new ANSI syntax, however, you dispense with the commas and instead explicitly specify the type of join you want. Having specified that you want an inner join, you specify the conditions of that join.
All the information for a join is specified in one place. You no longer need to wade through a complex WHERE clause, trying to separate out join conditions from other restrictions on query results. You aren't allowed to "forget" to specify join conditions.
Once you specify an inner join, for example, Oracle9i requires that you use the ON clause—or another clause—to explicitly specify the join condition. You can perform a full outer join, something not possible with the previous Oracle database join syntax. So far, we have used the ON clause to specify join conditions.
The ON clause allows you to specify any Boolean expression as a join condition. Most joins, however, are equi-joins.
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An equi-join is one in which you compare related columns from two tables for equality. So, if the columns defining a join are named identically in the two tables, you can take advantage of some simplified syntax that also increases the clarity of your queries. If you use column aliases like these with the USING clause, you'll receive an "invalid column name" error. That column is not associated with either of the joined tables, so you can't qualify it with an alias. The new ANSI syntax recognizes three types of outer join: left outer joins, right outer joins, and full outer joins.
Left and right outer joins are really the same thing - all rows from one table are included, along with any matching rows from the other table. The only difference between a left and a right outer join is the order in which you list the tables. The following two queries, are semantically identical:. The full outer join represents a new capability, returning all rows from both tables. Rows are matched on the join columns where possible, and NULLs are used to fill in the empty columns for any rows that don't have a match in the other table. Here is a pre-Oracle9i simulated full outer join and an Oracle9i full outer join.
You can specify multiple join conditions to join more than two tables in a query. By default, Oracle9i processes the joins from left to right. The following examples are equivalent and produces the same output. Suppose you have a lookup table with existing data on your test system and you need an INSERT script to fill the same, empty table on the production system.
SQL , which solves exactly this situation. For an example, we use the well known table DEPT. You have the possibility to initialize existing columns max 2 columns with a Default Value. SQL can be downloaded from here. Loading Data using External Tables. Oracle 9i allows you read-only access to data in external tables. External tables are defined as tables that do not reside in the database , and can be in any format for which an access driver is provided. By providing Oracle with metadata describing an external table, Oracle is able to expose the data in the external table as if it were data residing in a regular database table.
The external data can be queried directly and in parallel using SQL. You can, for example, select, join, or sort external table data. You can also create views and synonyms for external tables. This external table definition can be thought of as a view that allows running any SQL query against external data without requiring that the external data first be loaded into the database. An access driver is the actual mechanism used to read the external data in the table.
Oracle provides an access driver for external tables. It allows the reading of data from external files using the Oracle loader technology. Oracle's external tables feature provides a valuable means for performing basic extraction, transformation, and transportation ETT tasks that are common for datawarehousing. The following example creates an external table, then uploads the data to a database table.
The file empxt1. The file empxt2. The first few statements in this example create the directory objects for the operating system directories that contain the data sources, and for the bad record and log files specified in the access parameters. The TYPE specification is given only to illustrate its use. These access parameters are defined by the access driver, and are provided to the access driver by Oracle when the external table is accessed.
The granule of parallelism is by default a data source, but parallel access within a data source is implemented whenever possible. For parallel access, this limit applies to each parallel query slave independently.
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As data is parsed by the access driver from the external table sources and provided to the external table interface, the external data is converted from its external representation to its Oracle internal data type. Everything can be done from the database side, no more external processes for data loading and complicated Control Files - Congratulation Oracle! Oracle9i Database Administrator's Guide Release 1 9.
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Secure Random Number Generator. Secure random number generation is a very important aspect of cryptography; predictable cryptographic keys can easily be decrypted by a person or machine performing crypto analysis. The procedure requires an byte seed value. A seed value is needed to kick-start the algorithm to compute the random value.
A simple way to do this is to hardcode the seed which we actually generated by repeated invocations to the procedure. Despite the constant seed, the random value does not repeat. Test the function with the following code fragment. Manually install Oracle9i JVM 9. Using the database configuration assistant, this scripts will be executed. Make sure, your INIT. We have successfully installed the 9i JVM with the following settings on a Windows server. Called by jcoreini.
Once you are satisfied you can connect to the seed database locally and across your network by testing a connection to the server from a remote client , you can shutdown the instance and delete the database files to recover the disk space. You can also delete the control files and redo log files. If you do not need the Apache web server, stop the Apache server by executing.
If you are using a version of Solaris 8 that does not have Sun kernel patch or higher, or if your company requires the latest Solaris OS patch as a matter of policy, follow the steps in this section. The output from uname -a will show the patch level of Sun recommends you download and install a Sun recommended patch cluster for Solaris 8 "Solaris 8 Recommended Patch Cluster" and have patch or higher installed as part of the cluster. Download the patch cluster for Solaris 8 not "8 x86" and unzip the files.
The files can be unzipped anywhere on the file system where your UNIX user root has access. The install script that comes with the cluster will place the patches in their proper locations. You need approximately By default, a message warning the user to check for minimum disk space allowance will appear and allow the user to abort if inadequate space exists. The progress of the script will be displayed on your terminal. It should look something like:.
Sufficient save space exists, continuing To confirm that patch where is the latest patch version was installed, execute showrev -p grep at a UNIX prompt. If the patch does not appear, check the install log at. There may be two patches in the cluster that do not install and , but their absence does not matter. If you experience problems while installing patches, contact your UNIX systems administrator for assistance. When the install cluster process is finished, reboot the system.
You will also need to reboot the system after kernel parameters have been changed, and you can wait until then to reboot. Description: A Java component oracle. Exit the installation process when everything else is finished. Open a separate shell window, login as oracle9, and issue the following commands at the UNIX prompt:. As oracle9 at a UNIX prompt, you can type dbca and netca to start the two assistants and run them outside of the installation process. Description: Your user privileges need to be adjusted. Solution: Refer to the following items for information on how to resolve this error:.
Burleson is the American Team Note: This Oracle documentation was created as a support and Oracle training reference for use by our DBA performance tuning consulting professionals. Feel free to ask questions on our Oracle forum. Verify experience! Anyone considering using the services of an Oracle support expert should independently investigate their credentials and experience, and not rely on advertisements and self-proclaimed expertise.
All legitimate Oracle experts publish their Oracle qualifications. Oracle technology is changing and we strive to update our BC Oracle support information. If you find an error or have a suggestion for improving our content, we would appreciate your feedback. All rights reserved by Burleson. Remote Emergency Support provided by Conversational. Installation Cookbooks: Installing Oracle9i. A general outline of installation steps Instead of just plowing into the reading of a page installation guide and several release notes, if you look for an outline of steps to follow, your comprehension of what must be done is increased.
The following conventions are used in this installation guide: oracle9 is the UNIX account owner of the Oracle 9. By default, the Apache server is installed along with the Oracle9i program files. Refer to the Apache website for more information about the Apache web server and to Oracle documentation on applications that require the Apache server. Apache-related processes will start during the installation, and you will be directed to stop them later on in this guide. The home directory is where oracle9 's. This database can be deleted after the installation is complete.
All instructions to edit a file refer to using a text editor such as vi. For installation on versions of Solaris 8 prior to February , a patch cluster from Sun must be downloaded and installed prior to installing Oracle9i. The instructions f or doing this are also covered in this guide. More information can be found in the documents listed below: Oracle9i Installation Guide, Release 2 9. A , and Oracle9i Release Notes, Release 2 9. System Requirements The list below details the system requirements.
Solution: Refer to the following items for information on how to resolve this error: Doc Id Search BC Oracle Sites. Action to take. Oracle Universal Installer: Welcome. Oracle Universal Installer: File Locations.
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