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## Transmission-Efficient Design and Management of Wavelength-Routed Optical Networks

Heuristic multicast routing and protection algorithms for optical WDM networks with arbitrary mesh topologies Costas K. Pradhan , Tanmay De. Mouchos , Elias G. Giacoumidis , Jianming Tang. References Publications referenced by this paper. Computing approximate blocking probabilities for large loss networks with state-dependent routing Shun-Ping Chung , Arik N.

The MH algorithm finds the physical route with the minor number of optical links. The LRW algorithm finds the routes based on the wavelength availability aiming to distribute the load over the entire network. One must observe that the LRW algorithm uses the current information of the network i. In this paper, we are considering the MU algorithm. The MU algorithm selects the most used wavelength in the entire network and it keeps the spare capacity of less-used wavelengths.

We selected the MU algorithm to be deployed in this paper since it is simple and presents a good performance for WDM networks. Recently, we have proposed an adaptive-alternative routing algorithm for optical networks, called NrPSR [8]. The NrPSR algorithm finds the Nr routes that present the lower cost, which are evaluated based on a cost function expanded in a power series [9]. Then, it chooses one of them based on a pre-defined policy. The rest of the paper is organized as follows.

In the section IV, we detail the simulation setup and the parameters used in the simulations. In section V, we analyze the performance of our proposals and compare them to other policies for the NrPSR algorithm and some other well know routing algorithms. In section VI, we give our conclusions.

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In this section, we review some contributions that are closely related to this work. Xavier et al. Each route is evaluated using the PSR cost function considering the link length and the link availability as the input variables. The NrPSR can aggregate the benefits of an adaptive RWA by considering the physical layer effects and can include information about the wavelength assignment policy since it evaluates dynamically some possible routes between the source-destination nodes.

Yen [10] proposed an efficient algorithm to find the N r paths with lower cost from a source node to a destination node. This algorithm is more efficient then other approaches because its computational upper bound increases linearly with the N r value. After finding the set of candidate routes to attend to a connection request, the algorithm NrPSR evaluates each route and selects one of the Nr routes according to a predefined policy. Chaves et al. Both algorithms use an adaptive link weight function that considers two simple network information to consider the physical layer impairments.

The PSR proposes an expansion in a power series to evaluate the cost of a link during the calculations of the routes.

## Fachbücher > Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe | faxarytogy.tk

The first step is to choose the input variables for the cost function. They used the link availability and the link length. The availability X i,j between the nodes i and j is defined as [9] [11]:. The normalized physical link length y i,j is defined as [9] [11]:. The second step is to describe the cost function in terms of a power series in agreement with the chosen parameters [9], as depicted in equation 3.

N is an integer that represents the number of terms used in the power series expansion. The third step is to use a global optimizer in order to find the coefficients for the power series. The coefficients are calculated in an offline manner, i. We also chose to use the PSO algorithm because it can tackle optimization problems in hyper-dimensional search spaces with continuous variables.

Each particle l has a position in the search space, that represents a possible solution for the problem. The positions are updated based on the velocities of the particles. And the velocities of the particles depend on the best position obtained by the particle during the search process and the best position obtained by the neighborhood of the particle during the search process. The equations used to update the position and the velocity of the particle are shown in equations 5 and 4 , respectively. Algorithm 2 depicts the pseudocode of the PSO algorithm. Pereira et al. In this section, we present two policies for a routing algorithm to solve the RWA joint problem in all-optical networks.

This approach tends to reserve resource for further network requisitions.

This one tends to maximize the QoT of the lightpaths. Both algorithms use the Yen's algorithm to find the Nr routes with lower cost according to the PSR cost function. After the performance evaluation of the candidate routes, if there is no route to attend to the connection request, the call request is blocked and NrPSR does not test another route. For each network simulation, we run a set of 10 5 calls randomly generating the source-destination pairs for each connection request. The connection request process is characterized as a Poisson process and the time duration for each established lightpath is characterized by an exponential process.

Computing approximate blocking probabilities for large loss networks with state-dependent routing Shun-Ping Chung , Arik N. Kashper , Keith W.

### Fachbücher > Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe

Wei , Chunming Qiao. Power-efficient design of multicast wavelength-routed networks Maher Ali , Jitender S. Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks Laxman H. Sahasrabuddhe , Biswanath Mukherjee. Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch W. Related Papers.